Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction , or sexual activity between members of the same sex or gender. Homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation, along with bisexuality and heterosexuality , within the heterosexual—homosexual continuum with asexuality sometimes considered a fourth. Scientific and medical understanding is that sexual orientation is not a choice, but rather a complex interplay of biological and environmental factors,   especially with regard to early uterine environment. The most common terms for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, though gay is also used to refer generally to both homosexual males and females. The number of people who identify as gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who have same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay people not openly identifying as such due to homophobia and heterosexist discrimination.
However, the experiences of discrimination in society and possible rejection by friends, families and others, such as employers, means that some LGB people experience a greater than expected prevalence of mental health difficulties and substance misuse problems. July Heterosexism can include the presumption that everyone is heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the norm and therefore superior. Almendra teen census gathering techniques should make it more difficult to avoid the documentation of inequalities of this kind. Finally, there are of course Melanesia same sex partners good many issues faced by gay and lesbian families that are common to all, but lesbian and gay families often find themselves omitted or excluded from state and social services intended to address such issues as poverty among the elderly, retirement housing, domestic abuse, or family break-up.
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In many societies with Iroquois kinship terminologies, the preferred marriage partners include not only first cousins mother's brother's children and father's sister's childrenbut more remote relatives who are also classified as cross cousins by the logic of the kinship system. Their presence is marked by the appearance of the distinctive pottery, tools, and shell ornaments that define the Lapita culture. Over the Melanesia same sex partners several centuries Britainthe Netherlands, Australia, Germany, and Japan each established colonial claims to various parts of Melanesia. Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire. Scarification has all Nerinx tracy johnson disappeared in the Sepik region, except for the few males who can afford this expensive process. The study found a high rate of genetic differentiation and diversity among the groups living within the Melanesian islands, with the peoples not only distinguished between the islands, but also by the languages, topography, and size of an island. As with blond hair that arose in Europe and parts of Asia, incidence of blondness is more common in children than in adults, with hair tending to Melanesia same sex partners as the individual matures. Ashley Hernandez. Belconnen, ACT. A significant minority of them also belongs to Haplogroup O-M Art in most Melanesian societies is utilitarian designed for usefulness rather than beauty.
At the turn of the twenty-first century, the advanced industrial societies of the European Union, North America, and Australia continue to struggle with questions of the "placement" of same-sex relationships in family policy and regulation.
- Melanesia is not a country, but instead a "culture area.
- Melanesian culture , the beliefs and practices of the indigenous peoples of the ethnogeographic group of Pacific Islands known as Melanesia.
- Most of the region is in the Southern Hemisphere , with a few small northwestern islands of Western New Guinea in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Iroquois kinship also known as bifurcate merging is a kinship system named after the Haudenosaunee people that were previously known as Iroquois and whose kinship system was the first one described to use this particular type of system.
Same-sex sexual activity has been legal since , but households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples. In , Vanuatu signed the " joint statement on ending acts of violence and related human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity " at the United Nations , condemning violence and discrimination against LGBT people.
Some of these events have been attended by government officials. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in Vanuatu. Since , the age of consent has been equal, regardless of gender or sexual orientation. Vanuatu does not recognise same-sex unions in any form.
In October , the Minister for Internal Affairs issued a warning, which said that pastors are not allowed to preside over same-sex marriages. There is no legal protection against all forms of discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.
There is no general prohibition of employment discrimination based on sexual orientation in Vanuatu. However, Section Vanuatu is a socially conservative country. Gay and lesbian travellers and citizens are advised to avoid public displays of affection. There is no active gay scene in Vanuatu. The event was organised by VPride Foundation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. LGBT rights in Vanuatu. LGBT portal. Retrieved 27 July Radio New Zealand. Gay Star News. Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 28 May Central bank Fishing Telecommunications Transport Vatu currency. Demographics Languages People Religion Women.
Outline Index. LGBT rights in Oceania. Cook Islands Niue. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links Use dmy dates from January Use British English from August Namespaces Article Talk.
Hello, I am an online student, studying Cultural Anthropology. Ryan, P. Some communities in South India use the kinship tradition described above. PLOS Genetics. In this origin myth, however, the original pair are brothers. Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado. Austronesian languages and cultural traits were introduced along the north and south-east coasts of New Guinea and in some of the islands north and east of New Guinea by migrating Austronesians, probably starting over 3, years ago.
Melanesia same sex partners. Contemporary Melanesia
The first migration into Sahul came over 40, years ago. A further expansion into the eastern islands of Melanesia came much later, probably between B. Particularly along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people , who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3, years ago,   came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples.
In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics, languages, and culture among the peoples. It found that neither Polynesians nor Micronesians have much genetic relation to Melanesians. It appeared that, having developed their sailing outrigger canoes, the ancestors of the Polynesians migrated from East Asia, moved through the Melanesian area quickly on their way, and kept going to eastern areas, where they settled.
They left little genetic evidence in Melanesia and "only intermixed to a very modest degree with the indigenous populations there". Most of the languages of Melanesia are members of the Austronesian or Papuan language families. By one count, there are 1, languages in Melanesia, scattered across a small amount of land. The proportion of square kilometers per language is by far the most dense rate of languages in relation to land mass on Earth, almost three times as dense as in Nigeria, a country famous for its high number of languages in a compact area.
In addition to the many indigenous languages, pidgins and creole languages have developed, often from trade and cultural interaction centuries before European encounter. They are now both considered distinct creole languages. Use of Tok Pisin is growing. It is sometimes learned as a first language, above all by multi-cultural families.
A distinction is often made between the island of New Guinea and what is known as Island Melanesia , which consists of "the chain of archipelagos, islands, atolls, and reefs forming the outer bounds of the sheltered oval-shaped coral sea". The country of Vanuatu is composed of the New Hebrides island chain and in the past 'New Hebrides' has also been the name of the political unit located on the islands.
New Caledonia is composed of one large island and several smaller chains, including the Loyalty Islands. The names of islands in Melanesia can be confusing: they have both indigenous and European names. National boundaries sometimes cut across archipelagos. The names of the political units in the region have changed over time, and sometimes have included geographical terms.
For example, the island of Makira was once known as San Cristobal, the name given to it by Spanish explorers. It is in the country Solomon Islands, which is a nation-state and not a contiguous archipelago.
The border of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands separates the island of Bougainville from nearby islands like Choiseul, although Bougainville is geographically part of the chain of islands that includes Choiseul and much of the Solomons.
In addition to the islands mentioned here, there are many smaller islands and atolls in Melanesia. These include:. Norfolk Island, listed above, has archaeological evidence of East Polynesian rather than Melanesian settlement.
Rotuma in Fiji has strong affinities culturally and ethnologically to Polynesia. Several Melanesian states are members of intergovernmental organizations.
The high occurrence of blond hair is due to a specific random mutation, so DNA and phenotype for blonds appeared at least twice in human history. North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Melanesians. Further information: Melanesian languages. Geography portal Oceania portal. Journal of Pacific History. Retrieved 7 March Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.
An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. Menlo Park: Cummings Publishing Company. An Introduction to the Anthropology of Melanesia. New York: Cambridge University Press. PLOS Genetics. The Island Melanesians. PLoS Genetics. Lynn; Unseth, Peter International Journal of the Sociology of Language.
New Guinea: Crossing Boundaries and History. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. People Languages Music Mythology Universities. Melanesian Spearhead Group Melanesia Melanesia Cup Melanesian Super Cup. Culture of indigenous Oceania.
List of resources about traditional arts and culture of Oceania. Art festivals, cultural centres, and ideologies of kastom have cast in a more positive light the traditional cultural elements, such as ceremonial exchange , dance and music, and oral traditions, that had long been suppressed by the more conservative and evangelistic forms of Christianity.
The emphasis on traditional culture as a source of identity finds expression in the perpetuation or revival of old systems of exchange. In Papua New Guinea, the kula exchange of shell armbands and necklaces continues in the Massim region in southeastern Papua New Guinea , carried on by air travel and among politicians, professionals, and public servants, as well as by villagers in canoes. Members of the new elite still conspicuously pay bridewealth in shell valuables.
In the past, Melanesia was a meeting ground of two cultural traditions and populations: Papuans and Austronesians. The earliest, or Papuan, tradition is ancient. Papuans occupied the Sahul continent now partly submerged at least 40, years ago. As hunting and gathering peoples whose ways of life were adapted to the tropical rainforest , they occupied the equatorial zone of the continent, which became the vast island of New Guinea after sea levels rose at the end of the Pleistocene.
Modern descendants of these early populations speak languages that belong to a number of different families that together are categorized as Papuan languages.
Papuan peoples domesticated root crops and sugarcane and may have kept domestic pigs as early as 9, years ago, contemporaneous with the dawn of agriculture in the Middle East. By 5, years ago agricultural production in parts of the New Guinea highlands had incorporated systems of water control and swine husbandry, both of which were intensified over subsequent millennia. About 4, years ago, Austronesian peoples moved into the area, arriving by sea from Southeast Asia.
By 3, years ago they had occupied parts of the islands of the Bismarck Archipelago. Their presence is marked by the appearance of the distinctive pottery, tools, and shell ornaments that define the Lapita culture. They spoke an Austronesian language related to languages of the Philippines and Indonesia and ancestral to many of the languages of coastal eastern New Guinea; much of the Bismarck Archipelago; the Solomons, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia; and those of central and eastern Micronesia and Polynesia.
Evidence of long-distance trade, particularly of shell ornaments and obsidian, suggests that the widely spread communities characterized by the Lapita tradition had become linked politically by 3,—3, years ago. The settlement of eastern Micronesia by Austronesian speakers, perhaps from the Solomons, apparently took place during this period. Fiji was initially colonized by Lapita peoples and became a springboard to the settlement of western Polynesia.
The Austronesian speakers, who had a maritime orientation and sophisticated seagoing technology, probably had a system of hereditary chiefs with political-religious authority. They also had elaborate cosmologies and complex religious systems that were similar to those recorded in western Polynesia. The Bismarck Archipelago east of New Guinea was already occupied by speakers of Papuan languages when the Austronesians arrived. The populations that now occupy the archipelago and the arcs of islands extending to the southeast represent the mixing of Papuan and Austronesian peoples and cultures.
The mixing may have taken place largely within the Bismarcks before the islands to the southeast were settled, although the exact processes involved and the relative contributions of these historical populations are debated. A great deal of economic interchange took place between the Austronesian peoples, whose economies were based on root- and tree-crop cultivation and on maritime technology, and the Papuans, who also had well-developed agricultural and technological systems.
It is probable that an interchange of other cultural traditions, from social organization to religion, took place as well. However, some Austronesian-speaking communities—perhaps those that retained their maritime orientation—appear to have remained relatively isolated from intermarriage and cultural interchange.
Although the mix of Austronesian and Papuan cultural elements varies across Melanesia, in many ways the joint classification of both Austronesian peoples and Papuan peoples as Melanesians—in contrast to Micronesians and Polynesians—does a disservice to the ethnological, linguistic, and archaeological evidence.
The Austronesians of northern Vanuatu and the southeastern Solomons speak languages very closely related to those of Polynesia and eastern Micronesia. Culturally, Austronesians are in many ways more closely related to these other Austronesian-speaking peoples than to the Papuans of interior New Guinea.
In many areas of Melanesia, local groups lived in scattered homesteads and hamlets rather than villages. Often these settlements were occupied for short periods until the groups moved on to follow cultivation cycles. In general, larger, more permanent settlements were characteristic of coastal environments , and smaller, shifting ones were characteristic of interior areas.
Where communities were in danger of surprise attack, they tended to cluster more closely. In interior areas they were usually sited on ridges and peaks. In parts of the Sepik River area of Papua New Guinea, large villages —some with populations of more than 1, people—represented the aggregation of descent-based local groups. In the Trobriand Islands in the Massim area of southeastern Papua New Guinea , villages of up to people were arrayed around a central dance ground.
Villages at least as large were packed together on coral platforms in the lagoons of northern Malaita, in the Solomon Islands. Residential separation of men and women was common. Women and children typically occupied domestic dwellings, while men resided in clubhouses or cult houses, a focus of ritual and military solidarity common in many areas of Melanesia.
The huge cult houses of the Sepik River basin and the southern Papuan coast are examples. Melanesian culture.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction , or sexual activity between members of the same sex or gender. Homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation, along with bisexuality and heterosexuality , within the heterosexual—homosexual continuum with asexuality sometimes considered a fourth. Scientific and medical understanding is that sexual orientation is not a choice, but rather a complex interplay of biological and environmental factors,   especially with regard to early uterine environment.
The most common terms for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, though gay is also used to refer generally to both homosexual males and females. The number of people who identify as gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who have same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay people not openly identifying as such due to homophobia and heterosexist discrimination.
Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships, though only recently have census forms and political conditions facilitated their visibility and enumeration. Many modern style guides in the U. Although early writers also used the adjective homosexual to refer to any single-sex context such as an all-girls school , today the term is used exclusively in reference to sexual attraction, activity, and orientation. The term homosocial is now used to describe single-sex contexts that are not specifically sexual.
There is also a word referring to same-sex love, homophilia. Some synonyms for same-sex attraction or sexual activity include men who have sex with men or MSM used in the medical community when specifically discussing sexual activity and homoerotic referring to works of art.
Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships have varied over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it through law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under penalty of death.
In cultures influenced by Abrahamic religions , the law and the church established sodomy as a transgression against divine law or a crime against nature. The condemnation of anal sex between males, however, predates Christian belief.
Many historical figures, including Socrates , Lord Byron , Edward II , and Hadrian ,  have had terms such as gay or bisexual applied to them; some scholars, such as Michel Foucault , have regarded this as risking the anachronistic introduction of a contemporary construction of sexuality foreign to their times,  though others challenge this. Regarding homosexuality nature and historic expression there are two seemingly opposite positions.
These are represented by a constructionist and an essentialist approach. David M. Halperin devotes a chapter: Homosexuality: a cultural construct of his work One Hundred Years of Homosexuality to this subject. On the contrary, Constructionists mean that these terms are the names of social processes.
Halperin leans towards this last position, as he considers that sexuality, including homosexuality, has been expressed in essentially different ways in different historic societies, as it is in present day ones.
He, nevertheless, cites Esteven Epstein  that compares the controversy between essentialists and constructionists to the general nature versus nurture debate. As one of the main representatives of essentialists he cites John Boswell , and Michel Foucault as a prominent constructionist. Gay generally refers to male homosexuality, but may be used in a broader sense to refer to all LGBT people.
In the context of sexuality, lesbian refers only to female homosexuality. Though often ignored or suppressed by European explorers and colonialists, homosexual expression in native Africa was also present and took a variety of forms. Evans-Pritchard also recorded that male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands.
The practice had died out by the early 20th century, after Europeans had gained control of African countries, but was recounted to Evans-Pritchard by the elders to whom he spoke. The first record of possible homosexual couple in history is commonly regarded as Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum , an Egyptian male couple, who lived around BCE.
The pair are portrayed in a nose-kissing position, the most intimate pose in Egyptian art, surrounded by what appear to be their heirs. Among indigenous peoples of the Americas prior to European colonization, a common form of same-sex sexuality centered around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual.
Typically this individual was recognized early in life, given a choice by the parents to follow the path and, if the child accepted the role, raised in the appropriate manner, learning the customs of the gender it had chosen.
Two-Spirit individuals were commonly shamans and were revered as having powers beyond those of ordinary shamans. Their sexual life was with the ordinary tribe members of the same sex. The Spanish conquerors were horrified to discover sodomy openly practiced among native peoples, and attempted to crush it out by subjecting the berdaches as the Spanish called them under their rule to severe penalties, including public execution , burning and being torn to pieces by dogs.
In East Asia , same-sex love has been referred to since the earliest recorded history. Homosexuality in China , known as the passions of the cut peach and various other euphemisms has been recorded since approximately BCE. Homosexuality was mentioned in many famous works of Chinese literature. The instances of same-sex affection and sexual interactions described in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber seem as familiar to observers in the present as do equivalent stories of romances between heterosexual people during the same period.
Confucianism , being primarily a social and political philosophy, focused little on sexuality, whether homosexual or heterosexual. Opposition to homosexuality in China originates in the medieval Tang Dynasty , attributed to the rising influence of Christian and Islamic values,  but did not become fully established until the Westernization efforts of the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. Homosexuality in Japan , variously known as shudo or nanshoku has been documented for over one thousand years and was an integral part of Buddhist monastic life and the samurai tradition.
This same-sex love culture gave rise to strong traditions of painting and literature documenting and celebrating such relationships.
While Kathoey may encompass simple effeminacy or transvestism , it most commonly is treated in Thai culture as a third gender. They are generally accepted by society [ citation needed ] , and Thailand has never had legal prohibitions against homosexuality or homosexual behavior.
Hijra may be born male or intersex , and some may have been born female. Throughout Hindu and Vedic texts there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender. There are several stories of depicting love between same sexes especially among kings and queens. Kama Sutra , the ancient Indian treatise on love talks about feelings for same sexes.
Transsexuals are also venerated e. The earliest Western documents in the form of literary works, art objects, and mythographic materials concerning same-sex relationships are derived from ancient Greece. Same-sex relationships were a social institution variously constructed over time and from one city to another.
The formal practice, an erotic yet often restrained relationship between a free adult male and a free adolescent, was valued for its pedagogic benefits and as a means of population control, though occasionally blamed for causing disorder.
Plato praised its benefits in his early writings  but in his late works proposed its prohibition. Little is known of female homosexuality in antiquity. Sappho , born on the island of Lesbos , was included by later Greeks in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. The adjectives deriving from her name and place of birth Sapphic and Lesbian came to be applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century. The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love sometimes requited, sometimes not for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate.
In Ancient Rome the young male body remained a focus of male sexual attention, but relationships were between older free men and slaves or freed youths who took the receptive role in sex. All the emperors with the exception of Claudius took male lovers. The Hellenophile emperor Hadrian is renowned for his relationship with Antinous , but the Christian emperor Theodosius I decreed a law on August 6, , condemning passive males to be burned at the stake.
Notwithstanding these regulations, taxes on brothels of boys available for homosexual sex continued to be collected until the end of the reign of Anastasius I in During the Renaissance , wealthy cities in northern Italy — Florence and Venice in particular — were renowned for their widespread practice of same-sex love, engaged in by a considerable part of the male population and constructed along the classical pattern of Greece and Rome.
From the second half of the 13th century, death was the punishment for male homosexuality in most of Europe. In northern Europe the artistic discourse on sodomy was turned against its proponents by artists such as Rembrandt , who in his Rape of Ganymede no longer depicted Ganymede as a willing youth, but as a squalling baby attacked by a rapacious bird of prey. Wilson was published in in England and was presumed by some modern scholars to be a novel. Also in , the earliest extended and serious defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplified , written by Thomas Cannon , was published, but was suppressed almost immediately.
Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts. Between and Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published a series of twelve tracts, which he collectively titled Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love. In , he became the first self-proclaimed homosexual person to speak out publicly in defense of homosexuality when he pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws. In , Elisar von Kupffer published an anthology of homosexual literature from antiquity to his own time, Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur.
In the ancient Assyrian society, homosexuality was present and common; it was also not prohibited. Instead, some ancient religious Assyrian texts contain prayers for divine blessings on homosexual relationships.
Among some Middle Eastern Muslim cultures, egalitarian or age-structured homosexual practices were widespread and thinly veiled. The prevailing pattern of same-sex relationships in the temperate and sub-tropical zone stretching from Northern India to the Western Sahara is one in which the relationships were—and are—either gender-structured or age-structured or both.
In recent years, egalitarian relationships modeled on the western pattern have become more frequent, though they remain rare. Same-sex intercourse officially carries the death penalty in several Muslim nations: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Mauritania , northern Nigeria , Sudan , and Yemen.
Some scholars argue that there are examples of homosexual love in ancient literature, like in the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh as well as in the Biblical story of David and Jonathan. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the relationship between the main protagonist Gilgamesh and the character Enkidu has been seen by some to be homosexual in nature.
There are a handful of accounts by Arab travelers to Europe during the mids. In Persia, homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid era — , male houses of prostitution amrad khane were legally recognized and paid taxes. Today, governments in the Middle East often ignore, deny the existence of, or criminalize homosexuality.
Homosexuality is illegal in almost all Muslim countries. However, the probable reason is that they keep their sexuality a secret for fear of government sanction or rejection by their families. In many societies of Melanesia , especially in Papua New Guinea , same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as sinful and celebrated homosexuality instead. Many Melanesian societies, however, have become hostile towards same-sex relationships since the introduction of Christianity by European missionaries.
It uses a scale from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual , to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. The third phase more generally involves living openly as an LGBT person.
At this age, they may not trust or ask for help from others, especially when their orientation is not accepted in society. Sometimes their own families are not even informed. Unlike members of other minority groups e. Rather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality.
Outing is the practice of publicly revealing the sexual orientation of a closeted person. Many commentators oppose the practice altogether,  while some encourage outing public figures who use their positions of influence to harm other gay people.
For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa. However, this understanding of homosexuality as sexual inversion was disputed at the time, and through the second half of the 20th century, gender identity came to be increasingly seen as a phenomenon distinct from sexual orientation. Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations see sexual orientation of transwomen.