Jewish circumcision procedure-20 Facts About Jewish Circumcision Everyone Should Know - Lifecycle Events

Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics AAP recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks.

Jewish circumcision procedure

Techniques The principles of circumcision are asepsis, adequate excision of outer and inner preputial skin layers, hemostasis, protection of the glans and urethra, and cosmesis. Archived from the original on 16 July — via NYTimes. Blessings are recited circumcisioon a drop or two of wine is place in the child's mouth. Brit Jewish circumcision procedure Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who hast sanctified us with Thy commandments, and hast commanded us Jewish circumcision procedure make our sons procefure the covenant of Abraham our father. There have been some reports of its use in hemophilia Pregnancy rates with tubaligation in Israel.

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The term arelim "uncircumcised" [plural] is used opprobriously, Siberian boys sex the Philistines and other non-Israelites I Samuel; II Samuel and used Jeish conjunction with tameh unpure for heathen Isaiah Is the bris painful for the baby? Archived from the original on April 29, The mohel uses a shield to protect the penis and to guide the knife to make sure only the foreskin is cut. Mohalim who do not use anesthetic give the baby sugar water or wine as a mild form of sedation. Immediately after incising or injuring an artery, the arterial walls contract and obstruct, or at least reduce, the flow of blood. When an uncircumcised penis is flaccidthe pocket between the inside of the foreskin and the head of the penis provides an environment conducive to pathogen survival; circumcision eliminates this Jewish circumcision procedure. Ahavat Israel. Retrieved 20 June The person performing metzizah b'peh must do the following: Wipe around the outside of the mouth thoroughly, including the labial folds at the corners, with a sterile alcohol wipe, and then discard in a safe Circumcision care handout. Circumcision is the world's oldest planned surgical procedure, procefure by anatomist and hyperdiffusionist historian Grafton Elliot Smith to Jewish circumcision procedure over 15, years old, pre-dating recorded history.

Circumcision is a common procedure in which the skin covering the tip of the penis is surgically removed.

  • Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
  • This teaches us that our spiritual, emotional, moral and ethical perfection requires human effort.
  • Today, a mohel or mohelet is routinely designated by parents to fulfill this custom.
  • But a bris is actually more than just a snip; it is a ceremony that includes various traditions, rituals, and prayers.
  • The father of the infant stands next to the mohel , the one who will perform the circumcision.
  • The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal seudat mitzvah.

This teaches us that our spiritual, emotional, moral and ethical perfection requires human effort. There are many partnerships into which a person will enter during his or her lifetime. Most of them, at some point, will come to a natural end, or will be broken by one of the parties. Etched in the flesh of our physical bodies, the covenant will never end or be forgotten.

This is known as a brit milah or bris. For more information see Why Circumcise? The brit is performed anytime between sunrise and sunset on the eighth day from when the child was born. If health complications delay the circumcision , it is performed immediately after the stable health of the child is confirmed. Traditionally, it is preferable to perform the circumcision at the synagogue, following morning prayers.

For more information see The Day and Time of the Circumcision. These messengers are called kvatters. The mother hands her baby to the female messenger, who is dressed in her finest clothing. She in turn hands him over to the male messenger, who, wearing his tallit prayer shawl carries the child to where the circumcision will take place.

When the circumcision is complete, the kvatters return the infant to his mother in the same manner. Many synagogues have a designated ornamental chair for this purpose. One of the participants at the brit is honored with lifting the infant from the chair of Elijah and handing him to the father. The father, in turn, places the baby on the lap of the sandek , his representative, who will hold the baby during the circumcision.

After the sandek sits down, his hands are sanitized with alcohol. He is shown by the mohel , ritual circumciser, how to sit, and is instructed to refrain from any movement during the circumcision. The father of the infant stands next to the mohel. The father picks up the surgical knife and hands it to the mohel , stating that he appoints the mohel as his messenger to perform the circumcision.

The knife is extremely sharp, and double edged, in order to cause the least pain possible. For more information see The Circumcision Procedure and Blessings. For more information see Naming the Newly Circumcised Baby. To learn about a specific Jewish name, see Jewish boys' names and Jewish girls' names. The community attends a festive meal in honor of the circumcision.

The meal is held in order to extend the joyous occasion. It is traditional that all who participate in the festive meal should wash their hands and eat bread. The meal may consist of meat, fish, or dairy, and wine should always be served. At the festive meal, it is customary to give charity and sing spiritual melodies. The father of the infant gives a short talk about the significance of ritual circumcision. At the end of the Grace After Meals is recited, including six blessings specifically for the brit , bestowing good health and good wishes upon baby, parents, sandek and mohel.

This is a concise basic guide of what transpires at a circumcision though some details may vary from community to community. For more details, and many more customs and their sources, see The Brit Milah Handbook.

There is a discrepancy. Someone, for example, is 30 years old in their 31st year. Counting the day of birth as day one is dishonest as a form of reconciliation. I would welcome another explanation as to how to reconcile this discrepancy. You are correct, on the eighth day is not the same as eight days old. Eight days old means as you said, a completion of eight days. This is similar to a Bar Mitzvah boy who has completed 13 years, and now enters into his 14th year.

Whereas, on the eighth day, means that we are in the middle of the eight days - not that they have been completed already. If someone said this is the third day you've been here - could that not mean that you've come on Sunday, Monday, and today, being Tuesday? True that Reply. Here's a great tip! Enter your email address to get our weekly email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life. No Thanks. Subscribe Subscribe.

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You may also be interested in Brit Milah: The Covenant of Circumcision. Why Do We Have a Circumcision? Kabbalah on Circumcision. Listen 9 Comments. International Organization Breaks Down Barriers Join the Discussion Sort By:. Newest Oldest. Post Anonymously. Email me when new comments are posted. Please send me Chabad. We will not share your email address.

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BJU International. London: Springer. Our partner site Kveller has more about bris timing here. Otzar Habrit, p. The Circumcision Reference Library. Since the arterioles of the orlah, or the foreskin, branch off from the dorsal arteries the arteries of the upper side of the organ , cutting away the foreskin can result in a temporary obstruction in these dorsal arteries. Thus, the difference between the pressure in the blood vessels in the base of the organ and the pressure in the blood vessels at its tip is increased.

Jewish circumcision procedure

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Re: Circumcision and factor deficiencies Indeed, if there is a danger to the child the circumcision is postponed. Circumcision and factor deficiencies as a physician, I would think it prudent for the Mohel to know whether a newborn boy suffers from a factor deficiency or clotting disorder. One comes to mind, factor XIII deficiency, which causes oozing of blood from the wound site; others, such as von Willebrand disease may cause severe bleeding at the wound site.

If such a situation is evident, is the bris not performed? The Eighth Day Please see: www. Here's a great tip! Enter your email address to get our weekly email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life.

No Thanks. Subscribe Subscribe. Weekly Magazine Daily Dose. Ask the Rabbi. Chabad Locator Find. Tools Directory of Tools:. Birthday Lookup. Candle Lighting Times. Chabad Locator. Date Converter. Email Lists. Event Directory. Greeting Cards. Halachic Times. Jewish Calendar. Judaica Store. Knowledge Base. SMS Shabbat Times. Yahrtzeit Lookup. Popular Tools:. Shabbat Times. Email Subscriptions. More Sites Today is Mon. Jewish Practice.

Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh Deah Derech Pikudecha, Mitzvat Asei 2, See the Sephardic Prayer Book. Shulchan Aruch Otzar Habrit, p. By Dovid Zaklikowski. Dovid Zaklikowski is a freelance journalist living in Brooklyn. If you enjoyed this article, we encourage you to distribute it further, provided that you comply with Chabad. Browse Book. You may also be interested in Brit Milah: The Covenant of Circumcision. The Health Department recommends that infants being circumcised not undergo metzitzah b'peh.

Antonia C. Novello , Commissioner of Health for New York State, together with a board of rabbis and doctors, worked, she said, to "allow the practice of metzizah b'peh to continue while still meeting the Department of Health's responsibility to protect the public health. In three medical papers done in Israel, Canada, and the USA, oral suction following circumcision was suggested as a cause in 11 cases of neonatal herpes. Because of the risk of infection, some rabbinical authorities have ruled that the traditional practice of direct contact should be replaced by using a sterile tube between the wound and the mohel 's mouth, so there is no direct oral contact.

The Rabbinical Council of America , the largest group of Modern Orthodox rabbis, endorses this method. The sefer Mitzvas Hametzitzah [71] by Rabbi Sinai Schiffer of Baden, Germany, states that he is in possession of letters from 36 major Russian Lithuanian rabbis that categorically prohibit Metzitzah with a sponge and require it to be done orally. In September , the New York Department of Health unanimously ruled that the practice of metztizah b'peh should require informed consent from the parent or guardian of the child undergoing the ritual.

Berman, [78] [79] argued that the study on which the department passed its conclusions is flawed. The "informed consent" regulation was challenged in court. In January the U. District court ruled that the law did not specifically target religion and therefore must not pass strict scrutiny. The ruling was appealed to the Court of Appeals. On August 15, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision by the lower court, and ruled that the regulation does have to be reviewed under strict scrutiny to determine whether it infringes on Orthodox Jews' freedom of religion.

On September 9, after coming to an agreement with the community The New York City Board of Health voted to repeal the informed consent regulation. A brit milah is more than circumcision, it is a sacred ritual in Judaism, as distinguished from its non-ritual requirement in Islam.

One ramification is that the brit is not considered complete unless a drop of blood is actually drawn. The standard medical methods of circumcision through constriction do not meet the requirements of the halakhah for brit milah, because they cause hemostasis , i. Moreover, circumcision alone, in the absence of the brit milah ceremony, does not fulfill the requirements of the mitzvah.

A Milah L'shem giur is a "Circumcision for the purpose of conversion". In Orthodox Judaism , this procedure is usually done by adoptive parents for adopted boys who are being converted as part of the adoption or by families with young children converting together.

It is also required for adult converts who were not previously circumcised, e. The conversion of a minor is valid in both Orthodox and Conservative Judaism until a child reaches the age of majority 13 for a boy, 12 for a girl ; at that time the child has the option of renouncing his conversion and Judaism, and the conversion will then be considered retroactively invalid. He must be informed of his right to renounce his conversion if he wishes.

If he does not make such a statement, it is accepted that the boy is halakhically Jewish. Orthodox rabbis will generally not convert a non-Jewish child raised by a mother who has not converted to Judaism. The laws of conversion and conversion-related circumcision in Orthodox Judaism have numerous complications, and authorities recommend that a rabbi be consulted well in advance. In Conservative Judaism , the Milah l'Shem giur procedure is also performed for a boy whose mother has not converted, but with the intention that the child be raised Jewish.

This conversion of a child to Judaism without the conversion of the mother is allowed by Conservative interpretations of halakha. Conservative Rabbis will authorize it only under the condition that the child be raised as a Jew in a single-faith household. Should the mother convert, and if the boy has not yet reached his third birthday, the child may be immersed in the mikveh with the mother, after the mother has already immersed, to become Jewish.

If the mother does not convert, the child may be immersed in a mikveh, or body of natural waters, to complete the child's conversion to Judaism. This can be done before the child is even one year old.

If the child did not immerse in the mikveh , or the boy was too old, then the child may choose of their own accord to become Jewish at age 13 as a Bar Mitzvah , and complete the conversion then. Where the procedure was performed but not followed by immersion or other requirements of the conversion procedure e. Rabbi Saadia Gaon considers something to be "complete," if it lacks nothing, but also has nothing that is unneeded. He regards the foreskin an unneeded organ that God created in man, and so by amputating it, the man is completed.

Maimonides Moses ben Maimon "Rambam", CE — , who apart from being a great Torah scholar was also a physician and philosopher, argued that circumcision serves as a common bodily sign to members of the same faith. He also asserted that the main purpose of the act is to repress sexual pleasure, with the strongest reason being that it is difficult for a woman to separate from an uncircumcised man with whom she has had sex: [94]. It has been thought that circumcision perfects what is defective congenitally.

This gave the possibility to everyone to raise an objection and to say: How can natural things be defective so that they need to be perfected from outside, all the more because we know how useful the foreskin is for that member? In fact this commandment has not been prescribed with a view to perfecting what is defective congenitally, but to perfecting what is defective morally.

The bodily pain caused to that member is the real purpose of circumcision. None of the activities necessary for the preservation of the individual is harmed thereby, nor is procreation rendered impossible, but violent concupiscence and lust that goes beyond what is needed are diminished. The fact that circumcision weakens the faculty of sexual excitement and sometimes perhaps diminishes the pleasure is indubitable. For if at birth this member has been made to bleed and has had its covering taken away from it, it must indubitably be weakened.

The Sages, may their memory be blessed, have explicitly stated: It is hard for a woman with whom an uncircumcised man has had sexual intercourse to separate from him. In my opinion this is the strongest of the reasons for circumcision. The author of Sefer ha-Chinuch [95] provides three reasons for the practice of circumcision:. Talmud professor Daniel Boyarin offered two explanations for circumcision. One is that it is a literal inscription on the Jewish body of the name of God in the form of the letter " yud " from "yesod".

The second is that the act of bleeding represents a feminization of Jewish men, significant in the sense that the covenant represents a marriage between Jews and a symbolically male God. The Reform societies established in Frankfurt and Berlin regarded circumcision as barbaric and wished to abolish it.

However, while prominent rabbis such as Abraham Geiger believed the ritual to be barbaric and outdated, they refrained from instituting any change in this matter.

In , when a father in Frankfurt refused to circumcise his son, rabbis of all shades in Germany stated it was mandated by Jewish law; even Samuel Holdheim affirmed this.

Although the issue of circumcision of converts continues to be debated, the necessity of Brit Milah for Jewish infant boys has been stressed in every subsequent Reform rabbis manual or guide. A growing number [] [] [] [] of contemporary Jews and Intactivist Jewish groups in the United States , United Kingdom , and Israel , both religious and secular, choose not to circumcise their sons.

The ceremony of Brit shalom is not officially approved of by the Reform or Reconstructionist rabbinical organizations, who make the recommendation that male infants should be circumcised, though the issue of converts remains controversial [] [] and circumcision of converts is not mandatory in either movement. The connection of the Reform movement to an anti-circumcision, pro-symbolic stance is a historical one.

In Elyse Wechterman's essay A Plea for Inclusion , she argues that, even in the absence of circumcision, committed Jews should never be turned away, especially by a movement "where no other ritual observance is mandated".

She goes on to advocate an alternate covenant ceremony, brit atifah , for both boys and girls as a welcoming ritual into Judaism. Many European Jewish fathers during the nineteenth century chose not to circumcise their sons, including Theodor Herzl.

In most of Europe, both the government and the unlearned Jewish masses believed circumcision to be a rite akin to baptism, and the law allowed communities not to register uncircumcised children as Jewish. This legal maneuver spurred several debates addressing the advisibility of its use, since many parents later chose to convert to Christianity.

In early 20th-century Russia, Chaim Soloveitchik advised his colleagues to reject this measure, stating that uncircumcised Jewish males are no less Jewish than Jews who violate other commandments.

In the first half of the nineteenth century, various European governments considered regulating, if not banning, berit milah on the grounds that it posed potential medical dangers. In the s, radical Jewish reformers in Frankfurt asserted that circumcision should no longer be compulsory. This controversy reached Russia in the s.

Russian Jewish physicians expressed concern over two central issues: the competence of those carrying out the procedure and the method used for metsitsah. Many Jewish physicians supported the idea of procedural and hygienic reforms in the practice, and they debated the question of physician supervision during the ceremony.

Most significantly, many advocated carrying out metsitsah by pipette, not by mouth. In , a committee on circumcision convened by the Russian Society for the Protection of Health, which included leading Jewish figures, recommended educating the Jewish public about the concerns connected with circumcision, in particular, the possible transmission of diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis through the custom of metsitsah by mouth.

Veniamin Portugalov, who—alone among Russian Jewish physicians—called for the abolition of circumcision, set off these discussions.

Portugalov not only denied all medical claims regarding the sanitary advantages of circumcision but disparaged the practice as barbaric, likening it to pagan ritual mutilation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Seinfeld episode, see The Bris. This article uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them.

Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources , with multiple points of view. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim.

Important figures. Religious roles. Culture and education. Ritual objects. Major holidays. Other religions. Related topics. Main article: Religious male circumcision. See also: Feast of the Circumcision of Christ. Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion. David A. Leeming, Kathryn Madden and Stanton Marlan.

New York: Springer, Archived from the original on Retrieved The Jewish Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 15 August The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 24 August Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 13 August The New York Times. January 3, Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved June 11, J Child Neurol.

Paediatr Drugs. Origins of Yiddish Dialects. Oxford University Press. Archives of Disease in Childhood: — The Jerusalem Talmud there adds: "and is punished kareth! May Nurse Practitioner: 4— Isaac stated in the name of Rab: The commandment of uncovering the corona at circumcision was not given to Abraham; for it is said, At that time the Lord said unto Joshua: 'Make thee knives of flint etc.

Applied Research on Circumcision. D Why Aren't Jewish Women Circumcised? Basic Books September 12, Archived from the original on January 27, The Jewish Week. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 2, Archived from the original on February 19, Rabbinical Council of America.

June 7, Archived from the original on April 15, The poskim consulted by the RCA agree that the normative halacha permits using a glass tube, and that it is proper for mohalim to do so given the health issues involved.

Archived from the original on December 13, August Archived PDF from the original on Oct 24, June 12, Archived from the original on June 25, October 25, Archived from the original on September 30, Archived from the original on November 20, Divine Law in Human Hands. April 16, Archived from the original on April 2, Archived from the original on September 20, Archived from the original on May 15, The Journal News.

The Jewish Ledger. Archived from the original on April 29, Department of Health, New York State. November Archived from the original on February 5, The person performing metzizah b'peh must do the following: Wipe around the outside of the mouth thoroughly, including the labial folds at the corners, with a sterile alcohol wipe, and then discard in a safe place.

Wash hands with soap and hot water for minutes.

Techniques of Male Circumcision

The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal seudat mitzvah. According to the Hebrew Bible Genesis —14 God commanded the Biblical patriarch Abraham to be circumcised, an act to be followed by his descendants:.

Also, Leviticus provides: "And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised. According to the Hebrew Bible , it was "a reproach" for an Israelite to be uncircumcised Joshua The term arelim "uncircumcised" [plural] is used opprobriously, denoting the Philistines and other non-Israelites I Samuel , ; II Samuel and used in conjunction with tameh unpure for heathen Isaiah The word arel "uncircumcised" [singular] is also employed for "impermeable" Leviticus , "their uncircumcised hearts"; compare Jeremiah ; Ezekiel , 9 ; it is also applied to the first three years' fruit of a tree, which is forbidden Leviticus However, the Israelites born in the wilderness after the Exodus from Egypt were not circumcised.

Joshua —9, explains, "all the people that came out" of Egypt were circumcised, but those "born in the wilderness" were not. Therefore, Joshua, before the celebration of the Passover , had them circumcised at Gilgal specifically before they entered Canaan. Abraham, too, was circumcised when he moved into Canaan. The prophetic tradition emphasizes that God expects people to be good as well as pious, and that non-Jews will be judged based on their ethical behavior, see Noahide Law.

Thus, Jeremiah —26 says that circumcised and uncircumcised will be punished alike by the Lord; for "all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart. The penalty of non-observance is kareth spiritual excision from the Jewish nation , as noted in Genesis — Conversion to Judaism for non-Israelites in Biblical times necessitated circumcision, otherwise one could not partake in the Passover offering Exodus Today, as in the time of Abraham, it is required of converts in Orthodox , Conservative and Reform Judaism.

Genesis — As found in Genesis —14, brit milah is considered to be so important that should the eighth day fall on the Sabbath , actions that would normally be forbidden because of the sanctity of the day are permitted in order to fulfill the requirement to circumcise. Covenants in ancient times were sometimes sealed by severing an animal, with the implication that the party who breaks the covenant will suffer a similar fate.

In Hebrew, the verb meaning "to seal a covenant" translates literally as "to cut". It is presumed by Jewish scholars that the removal of the foreskin symbolically represents such a sealing of the covenant. Due to Jesus having undertaken this ceremony as a Jewish child, memory of this tradition has been preserved in traditional Christian churches according to the Gospel of Luke.

Significantly, the tradition of baptism universally replaced circumcision among Christians as the primary rite of passage as found in Paul's Epistle to the Colossians and in Acts of the Apostles. A mohel is a Jew trained in the practice of brit milah , the "covenant of circumcision. It is customary for the brit to be held in a synagogue, but it can also be held at home or any other suitable location. The brit is performed on the eighth day from the baby's birth, taking into consideration that according to the Jewish calendar, the day begins at the sunset of the day before.

If the baby is born on Sunday before sunset, the Brit will be held the following Sunday. However, if the baby is born on Sunday night after sunset, the Brit is on the following Monday. The brit takes place on the eighth day following birth even if that day is Shabbat or a holiday.

A brit is traditionally performed in the morning, but it may be performed any time during daylight hours. The Talmud explicitly instructs that a boy must not be circumcised if he had two brothers who died due to complications arising from their circumcisions, [12] and Maimonides says that this excluded paternal half-brothers.

This may be due to a concern about hemophilia. An Israeli study found a high rate of urinary tract infections if the bandage is left on too long. If the child is born prematurely or has other serious medical problems, the brit milah will be postponed until the doctors and mohel deem the child strong enough for his foreskin to be surgically removed. In recent years, the circumcision of adult Jews who were not circumcised as infants has become more common than previously thought. The actual circumcision will be private, and other elements of the ceremony e.

Most prominent acharonim rule that the mitzvah of brit milah lies in the pain it causes, and anesthetic, sedation, or ointment should generally not be used. Eliezer Waldenberg , Yechiel Yaakov Weinberg , Shmuel Wosner , Moshe Feinstein and others agree that the child should not be sedated, although pain relieving ointment may be used under certain conditions; Shmuel Wosner particularly asserts that the act ought to be painful, per Psalms In a letter to the editor published in The New York Times on January 3, , Rabbi Moshe David Tendler disagrees with the above and writes, "It is a biblical prohibition to cause anyone unnecessary pain".

Rabbi Tendler recommends the use of an analgesic cream. The title of kvater among Ashkenazi Jews is for the person who carries the baby from the mother to the father, who in turn carries him to the mohel. This honor is usually given to a couple without children, as a merit or segula efficacious remedy that they should have children of their own.

The origin of the term is Middle High German gevater e "godfather". After the ceremony, a celebratory meal takes place. At the birkat hamazon , additional introductory lines, known as Nodeh Leshimcha , are added. These lines praise God and request the permission of God, the Torah , Kohanim and distinguished people present to proceed with the grace. When the four main blessings are concluded, special ha-Rachaman prayers are recited.

They request various blessings by God that include:. At the neonatal stage, the inner preputial epithelium is still linked with the surface of the glans. The main goal of "priah" also known as "bris periah" , is to remove as much of the inner layer of the foreskin as possible and prevent the movement of the shaft skin, what creates the look and function of what is known as a "low and tight" circumcision.

According to Rabbinic interpretation of traditional Jewish sources, [27] the 'priah' has been performed as part of the Jewish circumcision since the Israelites first inhabited the Land of Israel.

Thus, the writers of the dictionary hypothesize that the more severe method practiced today was probably begun in order to prevent the possibility of restoring the foreskin after circumcision, and therefore the rabbis added the requirement of cutting the foreskin in periah.

A scalpel is used to detach the foreskin. A tube is used for metzitzah In addition to milah the actual circumcision and p'riah , mentioned above, the Talmud Mishnah Shabbat mentions a third step, metzitzah , translated as suction, as one of the steps involved in the circumcision rite. The Talmud writes that a " Mohel Circumciser who does not suck creates a danger, and should be dismissed from practice".

The process has the mohel place his mouth directly on the circumcision wound to draw blood away from the cut. The majority of Jewish circumcision ceremonies do not use metzitzah b'peh, [39] but some Haredi Jews use it. The practice has become a controversy in both secular and Jewish medical ethics. The ritual of metzitzah is found in Mishnah Shabbat , which lists it as one of the four steps involved in the circumcision rite.

Rabbi Moses Sofer — observed that the Talmud states that the rationale for this part of the ritual was hygienic — i. The Chasam Sofer issued a leniency Heter that some consider to have been conditional to perform metzitzah with a sponge to be used instead of oral suction in a letter to his student, Rabbi Lazar Horowitz of Vienna. This letter was never published among Rabbi Sofer's responsa but rather in the secular journal Kochvei Yitzchok.

Wertheimer, the chief doctor of the Viennese General Hospital. It relates the story that a mohel who was suspected of transmitting herpes via metzizah to infants was checked several times and never found to have signs of the disease and that a ban was requested because of the "possibility of future infections".

He also states Yoreh Deah that the practice is possibly a Sinaitic tradition, i. Other sources contradict this claim, with copies of Moses Sofer's responsa making no mention of the legal case or of his ruling applying in only one situation. Rather, that responsa makes quite clear that "metzizah" was a health measure and should never be employed where there is a health risk to the infant.

Chaim Hezekiah Medini , after corresponding with the greatest Jewish sages of the generation, concluded the practice to be Halacha l'Moshe m'Sinai and elaborates on what prompted Moses Sofer to give the above ruling.

When he presented the defense in secular court, his testimony was erroneously recorded to mean that Sofer stated it as a general ruling. The practice of metzitzah b'peh was alleged to pose a serious risk in the transfer of herpes from mohelim to eight Israeli infants, one of whom suffered brain damage.

The Health Department recommends that infants being circumcised not undergo metzitzah b'peh. Antonia C. Novello , Commissioner of Health for New York State, together with a board of rabbis and doctors, worked, she said, to "allow the practice of metzizah b'peh to continue while still meeting the Department of Health's responsibility to protect the public health.

In three medical papers done in Israel, Canada, and the USA, oral suction following circumcision was suggested as a cause in 11 cases of neonatal herpes. Because of the risk of infection, some rabbinical authorities have ruled that the traditional practice of direct contact should be replaced by using a sterile tube between the wound and the mohel 's mouth, so there is no direct oral contact.

The Rabbinical Council of America , the largest group of Modern Orthodox rabbis, endorses this method. The sefer Mitzvas Hametzitzah [71] by Rabbi Sinai Schiffer of Baden, Germany, states that he is in possession of letters from 36 major Russian Lithuanian rabbis that categorically prohibit Metzitzah with a sponge and require it to be done orally. In September , the New York Department of Health unanimously ruled that the practice of metztizah b'peh should require informed consent from the parent or guardian of the child undergoing the ritual.

Berman, [78] [79] argued that the study on which the department passed its conclusions is flawed. The "informed consent" regulation was challenged in court. In January the U. District court ruled that the law did not specifically target religion and therefore must not pass strict scrutiny. The ruling was appealed to the Court of Appeals. On August 15, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision by the lower court, and ruled that the regulation does have to be reviewed under strict scrutiny to determine whether it infringes on Orthodox Jews' freedom of religion.

On September 9, after coming to an agreement with the community The New York City Board of Health voted to repeal the informed consent regulation. A brit milah is more than circumcision, it is a sacred ritual in Judaism, as distinguished from its non-ritual requirement in Islam.

One ramification is that the brit is not considered complete unless a drop of blood is actually drawn. The standard medical methods of circumcision through constriction do not meet the requirements of the halakhah for brit milah, because they cause hemostasis , i. Moreover, circumcision alone, in the absence of the brit milah ceremony, does not fulfill the requirements of the mitzvah.

A Milah L'shem giur is a "Circumcision for the purpose of conversion". In Orthodox Judaism , this procedure is usually done by adoptive parents for adopted boys who are being converted as part of the adoption or by families with young children converting together.

It is also required for adult converts who were not previously circumcised, e. The conversion of a minor is valid in both Orthodox and Conservative Judaism until a child reaches the age of majority 13 for a boy, 12 for a girl ; at that time the child has the option of renouncing his conversion and Judaism, and the conversion will then be considered retroactively invalid. He must be informed of his right to renounce his conversion if he wishes.

If he does not make such a statement, it is accepted that the boy is halakhically Jewish. Orthodox rabbis will generally not convert a non-Jewish child raised by a mother who has not converted to Judaism. The laws of conversion and conversion-related circumcision in Orthodox Judaism have numerous complications, and authorities recommend that a rabbi be consulted well in advance.

In Conservative Judaism , the Milah l'Shem giur procedure is also performed for a boy whose mother has not converted, but with the intention that the child be raised Jewish. This conversion of a child to Judaism without the conversion of the mother is allowed by Conservative interpretations of halakha. Conservative Rabbis will authorize it only under the condition that the child be raised as a Jew in a single-faith household.

Jewish circumcision procedure

Jewish circumcision procedure

Jewish circumcision procedure