Over the past forty years, he has played a pivotal role in virtually every movement for empowerment, peace, civil rights, gender equality, and economic and social justice. Reverend Jackson has been called the "Conscience of the Nation" and "the Great Unifier," challenging America to be inclusive and to establish just and humane priorities for the benefit of all. He is known for bringing people together on common ground across lines of race, culture, class, gender and belief. Born on October 8, in Greenville, South Carolina, Jesse Jackson graduated from the public schools in Greenville and then enrolled in the University of Illinois on a football scholarship. He began his theological studies at Chicago Theological Seminary but deferred his studies when he began working full-time in the Civil Rights Movement with Dr.
Michael Jackson was a multi-talented musical entertainer who enjoyed a chart-topping career both with the Jackson 5 and as a solo artist. A good student in high schoolJesse jackson sr biography was elected class president and later attended the University of Illinois —60 on a football scholarship. Other elections: House Senate Gubernatorial. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jesse Jackson. November 10, In and Jesse Jackson ran for U. This section needs expansion. Retrieved Sg 21, American civil rights movement: Into the 21st century.
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Seriously TV Special documentary Himself. Nominee Edward Winn. Himself as Rev. His clear progressive agenda and his ability to build an unprecedented coalition inspired millions to join the political process. TV Xr Himself - Episode 4. Retrieved Jacskon 12, Canton connecticut adult education classes As he prepared to run for president inVice President Al Gore attempted to maintain good relations with the Jackson family, hoping to discourage Jackson's father uackson running for president against him. Since then, he has continued to promote voter registration and lead get-out-the-vote campaigns, believing that everyone should be encouraged to be a responsible, informed and active voter. Add it to your IMDbPage. At the conclusion of the Democratic primary season, Jackson had captured 6. Main article: Jesse Jackson presidential campaign, Brown v. In MarchJackson attracted ridicule for a speech he made on the House floor proposing Jesse jackson sr biography constitutional amendment for ssr education rights", which he illustrated by proposing Jesse jackson sr biography every student in America receive an iPad from the federal government. Views Read Edit View history. Civil rights leader Reverend Jesse Jackson has spent decades in the public eye in support of ending racial and class divisions in America.
He married the former Jacqueline Lavinia in
- Jesse Louis Jackson Sr.
- Civil rights leader and two-time Democratic presidential candidate Jesse Jackson — became one of the most influential African-Americans of the late 20th century.
- Jesse adopted the name of his stepfather, Charles Jackson, at about age
- Over the past forty years, he has played a pivotal role in virtually every movement for empowerment, peace, civil rights, gender equality, and economic and social justice.
Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in and and served as a shadow U. Senator for the District of Columbia from to Former U. Representative Jesse Jackson Jr. Jackson was born in Greenville, South Carolina , to Helen Burns — , a year-old high school student, and her year-old married neighbor, Noah Louis Robinson — The family has some Cherokee roots.
He considered both men to be his fathers. As a young child, Jackson was taunted by other children about his out-of-wedlock birth, and has said these experiences helped motivate him to succeed. Upon graduating from high school in , he rejected a contract from a minor league professional baseball team so that he could attend the University of Illinois on a football scholarship. Accounts of the reasons for this transfer differ. Jackson has claimed that he changed schools because racial prejudice prevented him from playing quarterback and limited his participation on a competitive public-speaking team.
Writing on ESPN. On July 16, , while home from college, Jackson joined seven other African Americans in a sit-in at the Greenville Public Library in Greenville, South Carolina, which only allowed white people.
The group was arrested for "disorderly conduct". Jackson's pastor paid their bond, the Greenville News said. DeeDee Wright, another member of the group, later said they wanted to be arrested "so it could be a test case.
The possibility of a lawsuit led to the reopening of both libraries September 19, also the day after the News printed a letter written by Wright. Jackson has been known for commanding public attention since he first started working for Martin Luther King Jr. Howard , a s proponent of the consumer boycott tactic, soon became a major supporter of Jackson's efforts — donating and raising funds, and introducing Jackson to prominent members of the black business community in Chicago.
When King was shot, Jackson was in the parking lot one floor below. Jackson was also reportedly seeking coalition with whites in order to approach what were considered racial problems as economic and class problems. The Times also indicated that Jackson was being criticized as too involved with middle-class blacks, and for having an unattainable goal of racial unity. In the spring of Abernathy ordered Jackson to move the national office of Operation Breadbasket from Chicago to Atlanta and sought to place another person in charge of local Chicago activities, but Jackson refused to move.
Daley's presence was seen as a testament to the growing political and economic power of blacks. In December Jackson and Abernathy had a complete falling out, with the split described as part of a leadership struggle between Jackson, who had a national profile, and Abernathy, whose prominence from the Civil Rights Movement was beginning to wane. Howard was installed as a member of the board of directors and chair of the finance committee.
In Jackson called for a closer relationship between blacks and the Republican Party, telling the Party's National Committee that "Black people need the Republican Party to compete for us so we can have real alternatives The Republican Party needs black people if it is ever to compete for national office.
In Jackson and Operation PUSH led a boycott against beer giant Anheuser-Busch , criticizing the company's level of minority employment in their distribution network. In Yusef and his brother Jonathan were chosen by Anheuser-Busch to head River North Sales, a Chicago beer distribution company, leading to controversy.
In Jackson organized the Rainbow Coalition and resigned his post as president of Operation PUSH in to run for president of the United States, though he remained involved as chairman of the board.
Jackson's influence extended to international matters in the s and s. In he traveled to Syria to secure the release of a captured American pilot, Navy Lt. Robert Goodman , who was being held by the Syrian government. Goodman had been shot down over Lebanon while on a mission to bomb Syrian positions in that country.
The Reagan administration was initially skeptical about Jackson's trip, but after Jackson secured Goodman's release, Reagan welcomed Jackson and Goodman to the White House on January 4, On the eve of the Persian Gulf War , Jackson made a trip to Iraq to plead with Saddam Hussein for the release of foreign nationals held there as a "human shield", securing the release of several British and 20 American individuals.
His international efforts continued into the s. On February 15, , Jackson spoke in front of over an estimated one million people in Hyde Park, London at the culmination of the anti-war demonstration against the imminent invasion of Iraq by the U. In November Jackson visited senior politicians and community activists in Northern Ireland in an effort to encourage better cross-community relations and rebuild the peace process and restore the governmental institutions of the Belfast Agreement.
Jackson condemned Robertson's remarks as immoral. He also met representatives from the Venezuelan African and indigenous communities. In Jackson was enlisted as part of the United Kingdom's "Operation Black Vote", a campaign Simon Woolley ran to encourage more of Britain's ethnic minorities to vote in political elections ahead of the May General Election. In Jackson served as a speaker for The International Peace Foundation on the topic "Building a culture of peace and development in a globalized world".
During the s Jackson achieved wide fame as a politician and a spokesman for civil rights issues. In , for example, he mediated in a firefighters' strike.
On November 3, , Jackson announced his campaign for President of the United States in the election,  becoming the second African American after Shirley Chisholm to mount a nationwide campaign for president. In the Democratic Party primaries, Jackson, who had been written off by pundits as a fringe candidate with little chance at winning the nomination, surprised many when he took third place behind Senator Gary Hart and former Vice President Walter Mondale , who eventually won the nomination.
Jackson garnered 3,, primary votes, or He afterwards stated that he had been handicapped by party rules. While Mondale in the words of his aides was determined to establish a precedent with his vice presidential candidate by picking a woman or visible minority, Jackson criticized the screening process as a " p.
He also mocked Mondale, saying that Hubert Humphrey was the "last significant politician out of the St. Paul—Minneapolis" area. Jackson was criticized in the early s for referring to Jews as "Hymies" and New York City as "Hymietown" in remarks to a black Washington Post reporter.
He had mistakenly assumed the references would not be printed. Louis Farrakhan made the situation worse by issuing, in Jackson's presence, a public warning to Jews that "If you harm this brother [Jackson], it will be the last one you harm. A rift between Jackson and many in the Jewish community endured at least through the s. Shortly after President Jimmy Carter fired U. Ambassador Andrew Young for meeting with Palestine Liberation Organization representatives, Jackson and other black leaders began publicly endorsing a Palestinian state, with Jackson calling Israel's prime minister a "terrorist" and soliciting Arab-American financial support.
According to a New York Times article, Jackson began attempting to improve his relationship with the Jewish community after In Jackson again sought the Democratic presidential nomination. According to a November New York Times article, "Most political analysts give him little chance of being nominated — partly because he is black, partly because of his unretrenched liberalism.
Jackson once again exceeded expectations as he more than doubled his previous results, prompting R. In early Jackson organized a rally at the former American Motors assembly plant in Kenosha, Wisconsin , approximately two weeks after new owner Chrysler announced it would close the plant by the end of the year. In his speech he spoke out against Chrysler's decision: "We have to put the focus on Kenosha, Wisconsin, as the place, here and now, where we draw the line to end economic violence!
But Jackson's campaign suffered a significant setback less than two weeks after the UAW endorsement when he narrowly lost the Colorado primary to Michael Dukakis , and was defeated handily the following day by Dukakis in the Wisconsin primary. Jackson's showing among white voters in Wisconsin was significantly better than in , but was also noticeably lower than pre-primary polling had predicted.
The back-to-back victories established Dukakis as the front-runner, and he went on to win the party's nomination, but lost the general election in November. Jackson's campaign was also interrupted by allegations regarding his half-brother Noah Robinson Jr. At the conclusion of the Democratic primary season, Jackson had captured 6. In both races Jackson ran on what many considered to be a very liberal platform.
With the exception of a resolution to implement sanctions against South Africa for its apartheid policies, none of these positions made it into the party's platform in either or Although Jackson was one of the most liberal members of the Democratic Party, his position on abortion was originally more in line with pro-life views.
Less than a month after the Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade legalized abortion, Jackson began a PUSH campaign against the decision, calling abortion murder and declaring that Jesus and Moses might not have been born if abortion had been available in ancient times. Howard, a black physician who performed abortions. In Jackson endorsed a plan for a constitutional amendment banning abortion.
Wade — the right to privacy — had also been used to justify slavery and the treatment of slaves on the plantations. Jackson decried what he believed was the casual taking of life and the decline in society's values. But Jackson later adopted the view that women have the right to an abortion and that the government should not interfere.
Jackson ran for office as " shadow senator " for the District of Columbia when the position was created in ,  and served as such through , when he did not run for reelection. This unpaid position was primarily a post to lobby for statehood for the District of Columbia. In the mids Jackson was approached about being the United States Ambassador to South Africa but declined the opportunity in favor of helping his son Jesse Jackson Jr.
Jackson was initially critical of Bill Clinton's moderate, " Third Way " policies. According to journalist Peter Beinart , Clinton was "petrified about a primary challenge from" Jackson in the election.
On May 2, , during the Kosovo war, three US soldiers who had been held captive were released as a result of talks with Jackson. On November 18, , seven Decatur, Illinois high school students were expelled for two years after participating in a brawl at a football game. The incident was caught on home video and became a national media event when CNN ran pictures of the fight. After the students were expelled, Jackson argued that the expulsions were unfair and racially biased.
He called on the school board to reverse its decision. Jackson had also requested a pardon for his half-brother Noah Robinson, who had been convicted of murdering Leroy Barber and sentenced to life imprisonment, but Clinton did not pardon Robinson on the grounds that Robinson had already submitted three pardon appeals, all of which the Justice Department had denied.
Jackson was a target of the white supremacist terror plot. In early Jackson visited the parents in the Terri Schiavo case ; he supported their unsuccessful bid to keep her alive. In March an African-American woman accused three white members of the Duke University men's lacrosse team of raping her. The case against the three men was later thrown out and the players were declared innocent by the North Carolina Attorney General.
Jackson took a key role in the scandal caused by comedic actor Michael Richards 's racially charged comments in November Richards called Jackson a few days after the incident to apologize; Jackson accepted Richards's apology  and met with him publicly as a means of resolving the situation.
Jackson also joined black leaders in a call for the elimination of the " N-word " throughout the entertainment industry.
Atlantic Monthly. Jesse Jackson". But Jackson later adopted the view that women have the right to an abortion and that the government should not interfere. December 20, Obama's Illinois State Senate 13th district that he served from — was within Jackson's district. Democratic National Convention Committee, Inc.
Jesse jackson sr biography. Who Is Jesse Jackson?
Rev. Jesse Jackson Bio | Rainbow Push
Jesse adopted the name of his stepfather, Charles Jackson, at about age A good student in high school , Jesse was elected class president and later attended the University of Illinois —60 on a football scholarship. He moved to Chicago in , did graduate work at the Chicago Theological Seminary, and was ordained a Baptist minister in While an undergraduate, Jackson became involved in the civil rights movement. He was in Memphis, Tennessee, with King when the civil rights leader was assassinated on April 4, , though his exact location at the moment King was shot has long been a matter of controversy.
Accused of using the SCLC for personal gain, Jackson was suspended by the organization, whereupon he formally resigned in and founded Operation PUSH People United to Save Humanity , a Chicago-based organization in which he advocated black self-help and achieved a broad audience for his liberal views. In he established the National Rainbow Coalition, which sought equal rights for African Americans, women, and homosexuals.
Jackson began traveling widely in the late s to mediate or spotlight international problems and disputes. In he visited South Africa , where he spoke out against apartheid , and he later journeyed to the strife-ridden Middle East and campaigned to give Palestinians their own state. While some observers and government officials frowned on his diplomatic missions as meddlesome and self-aggrandizing, Jackson nonetheless won praise for negotiating the release of U. In the s Jackson became a leading national spokesman and advocate for African Americans.
The following year Jackson ran for the Democratic presidential nomination. In what was then the strongest showing ever by an African American candidate, Jackson placed third in the primary voting. Jackson, a dynamic orator, made memorable speeches at later Democratic conventions but declined to run again for the presidency.
In Jackson took residency in Washington, D. Congress for statehood for the District of Columbia, Jackson won election to one of the posts, his first elective office. In President Bill Clinton named him a special envoy to Africa, where he traveled to promote human rights and democracy. That year Jackson also founded the Wall Street Project, which sought to increase minority opportunities in corporate America. During the impeachment hearings against Clinton in , Jackson counseled the president, and in Clinton awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
The following year, however, he became embroiled in controversy when it was revealed that he had fathered a child out of wedlock. Jackson continued his social activism, giving lectures and leading protests.
His books include Straight from the Heart ; ed. Hatch and Frank E. His son Jesse Jackson, Jr. House of Representatives — Jesse Jackson. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. In and Jesse Jackson ran for U. However, despite an expanding black middle-class and equal-opportunity laws in…. American civil rights movement: Into the 21st century. Obama—whose father was a…. Lobbying, any attempt by individuals or private interest groups to influence the decisions of government; in its original meaning it referred to efforts to influence the votes of legislators, generally in the lobby outside the legislative chamber.
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