The verdict came at the end of more than five years of investigations and legal proceedings that have come under sharp criticism from international observers. The European Union, which seeks to admit Bulgaria in its next wave of expansion, said it was shocked by the court's decision. Spokesman Diego de Ojeda said there had been "severe irregularities" in terms of the rights of defence. Bulgaria condemned the "unfair and absurd" verdicts and called for a strong reaction from the EU, Nato and the United States. The case began in with the arrest of the medical workers - five Bulgarian nurses and two doctors, a Bulgarian and a Palestinian - after children at the al-Fateh hospital in Benghazi were found to have HIV, the virus that causes Aids.
Archived from the original on 17 Age of losing virginity Nenova and Vulcheva admitted that they had seen Ashraf at the Benghazi Children's Hospital, but testified that they did not communicate with him doctorss did not perform any tasks assigned by him. Archived from the Hiv libya american doctors on 19 December The WHO team issued a classified report on the situation. She is seeking to reappoint Vladimir Doctorx as a replacement for defence attorneys Yalnyzov and Byzanti after the death sentence.
Corticoesteroides intramuscular en cavidad oral. Site Search Navigation
Contrary to the findings of Prof. Children should be educated about how to prevent getting infected with HIV and how they can doctoes the services available if they get infected. In most developed countries, HIV transmission through medical facilities has been eliminated, and it suggests ammerican it is possible to avoid transmission via medical facilities n. During his investiture speech as President beginning of MaySarkozy had alluded to the nurses, declaring: "France will be to the sides of the Libyan nurses [ sic ] detained since 8 years Our findings would be useful for making Good lubricant and projections about the overall disease burden, including the complications of hepatitis infection, such as cirrhosis, liver Hiv libya american doctors, and hepatocellular carcinoma [ 50 ]. Results The overall prevalence of HBsAg positivity was 2. Through education, myths about HIV infection and infected people could be eradicated. If talking about the problems of practising safe sex does not help, the doctor may obtain a Public Health Order to manage the behaviour of the HIV positive person. Archived from the original on 19 December Miller 5 May Help us spread the word. Comprehensive HIV prevention. On 24 Hiv libya american doctorsit was announced Hiv libya american doctors Libya, Bulgaria, the EU and the US had agreed on the creation of a fund, which may have helped to resolve the matter. All of the defendants said they had been tortured.
TRIPOLI, Libya — Six foreign health workers jailed in Libya for years on charges of deliberately infecting children with the AIDS virus were convicted and sentenced to death in a case that has long sparked international outrage and did so again Tuesday.
- Alexander first worked with MSF in Niger in as a logistician.
- Criminal transmission of HIV is the intentional or reckless infection of a person with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV.
- Some died.
- Metrics details.
- The AIDS epidemic is devastating communities all over the world, especially in the African region, in many ways.
- Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: intermediate food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: may be a significant risk in some locations during the transmission season typically April through October
The Libyan court rejected the conclusion. The six medical workers have been incarcerated for nearly a decade, and their fate remained uncertain on Wednesday despite months of negotiations to secure their release.
The European Union and the United States have repeatedly pressed Libya to free them, and groups of Nobel laureates have gone to Tripoli to plead their case with the Libyan leader, Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi. The Supreme Judicial Council of Libya, which could overturn the ruling or reduce the sentence, will meet Monday.
The reaction in Europe to the verdict was swift and dismayed. In the past two years, the European Union, member states and even private corporations have funneled aid into Libya to help resolve the case.
Officials at the foundation did not respond to more than a dozen attempts to question them by phone Wednesday. Under Islamic law, the families of the children may accept compensation for the injury and express forgiveness, which would lead to the dismissal of the cases. Libyan negotiators have long said that this would be the best way to resolve the case, diplomats involved in the talks said.
View all New York Times newsletters. But the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry has refused to consider compensation, saying that would imply guilt, and the country could not afford the amounts under discussion, which could run into the billions of dollars.
Bulgaria is ready to react appropriately in the next days following the development of the situation. Fifty of the infected children have died. In the indictment, which reads like a spy novel, Libyan prosecutors claimed the medical workers had infected the children in a plot by the Mossad, the Israeli secret service, to undermine Libya. The nurses said they had been tortured and raped so they would confess.
Luc Montagnier of France and Dr. Vittorio Colizzi of Italy, to study the evidence. They concluded that poor sanitary practices had led to the spread of H. Bush Names Ambassador to Libya. Cretz is deputy chief of mission at the American Embassy in Tel Aviv and had held the same job at the embassy in Damascus, Syria. An article on Thursday about a decision by the Libyan Supreme Court to uphold the death penalty for five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor, all of whom were found guilty of intentionally infecting Libyan children with the virus that causes AIDS, misidentified the title of Dimiter Tzantchev, a Bulgarian official who issued a statement about the case.
He is the spokesman for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; he is not the foreign minister, the job held by Ivailo Kalfin. Go to Article. Tell us what you think. Please upgrade your browser. See next articles. Newsletter Sign Up Continue reading the main story Please verify you're not a robot by clicking the box.
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Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. Correction: July 16, An article on Thursday about a decision by the Libyan Supreme Court to uphold the death penalty for five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor, all of whom were found guilty of intentionally infecting Libyan children with the virus that causes AIDS, misidentified the title of Dimiter Tzantchev, a Bulgarian official who issued a statement about the case.
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The Guardian. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections by demographic and social variables, Libya, J Viral Hepat. Archived from the original on 10 May This section does not cite any sources. Both Libyan and international medical experts have voiced concerns about the potential for increases in infection, particularly viral hepatitis and AIDS [ 23 , 24 ].
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Eventually HIV-infected children who had been in Fateh were tracked down. At least 53 of them have subsequently died of AIDS. Given Libya is a Muslim nation, ruled by Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi, who believes himself to be leader of an especially moral state, the outbreak of a sexually transmissible disease among children was politically abhorrent.
Someone, preferably a non- Muslim, had to take the blame. Libyan authorities accused five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian physician of a hideous crime: Working in collusion with the U. The doctor and nurses were imprisoned, tortured and sentenced to death by firing squad. Seven years on, still imprisoned, they have undergone a trial, which was appealed to the Libyan Supreme Court.
Six months ago the court ordered a retrial, which is set to commence on June Libya and the United States recently decided to normalize relations, 16 years after the Qaddafi government backed the terrorist assault on PanAm Flight , which blew up over Lockerbie, Scotland, taking the lives of all passengers and crew, and 11 Lockerbie residents on the ground.
Incredibly, the very week that Tripoli and Washington announced their warming of relations, Libya charged two more Bulgarians with crimes. Though the pair has long since returned to Bulgaria, they will be tried in absentia for alcohol distillation and public consumption, a crime that can carry a maximum sentence of death in Libya, if the alcohol was smuggled into the country. One of the newly charged Bulgarians, Smilian Tachev, an engineer, told Bulgarian journalists last month that he was originally arrested in Benghazi at the same time as the nurses and doctor, and during days of captivity witnessed gruesome torture of the health care workers.
When they collapsed totally, they were dragged somewhere and brought back in a helpless state. Tachev witnessed the use of probes to force unidentified objects down the women's throats, electrocution, and dogs loosed on the screaming victims. The U. So governments need to make contraceptives available.
Lack of healthcare workers makes it difficult for children to access healthcare. African countries have a poor doctor-to-patient ratio. Furthermore, medical facilities must be improved by enhancing medical technology. Most children infected with AIDS die at a young age, but children who are treated with therapy live longer. Another problem is that most available drugs are not suitable for children. Most drugs designed for children exist only as tablets, but children cannot swallow them.
Since these drugs do not exist as syrups or powders, caregivers tend to break adult tablets and give them to children. This results in children getting too little or too much dosage per day n. Also, life expectancy of a person living in sub-Saharan Africa is around 47 years, but if HIV were not prevalent in Africa, it would be around 62 years.
Children who get infected with AIDS have to suffer a lot through the rest of their lives. Death of one or both parents or loved ones makes these children orphans. According to statistics of UNAIDS b , many children who lose their parents are taken care of by their relatives; others live with strangers or alone p.
Although most children live with their relatives or guardians, they do not get the necessary affection and care that they would have gotten if they lived with their parents. They also do not get the same education, healthcare, and other necessities compared to other African children.
They have to take care of their sick parents, relatives, and siblings; they also have to contribute to the family economy. Most of these children work under harsh conditions that are inappropriate for their age. This raises serious questions since these children are not capable of supporting their siblings.
Some children get separated from their siblings when their parents die, and this negatively impacts those children; this is partly because one guardian does not have the ability to care for many children UNAIDS, b, p. This may lead to psychological problems later on in their lives. These children do not get the sympathy that children infected with other diseases, like cancer or mental retardation, get Canosa, The main reason for discrimination is that AIDS is a sexually transmitted disease, and in many parts of Africa, sex is considered a taboo Smith, , p.
HIV causes enrollment in schools to decrease. Children who get infected with AIDS will miss many days of school due to frequent illnesses Smith, , p.
Some children stay at home to care for relatives who are infected with AIDS. Others miss school because they have to work or because they do not have enough money to pay for school. UNAIDS b reports that even in the same family, orphans are less likely to attend school compared to other children in the same house p.
A study has shown that orphans who live with their mothers are most likely to attend school, compared to orphans who live with their fathers p. In some instances, even children who can afford to go to school do not get a proper education because some of their teachers are also affected by this deadly disease p. Most of the schools in the poor regions of Africa are run by one or two teachers, and when one of them gets infected with AIDS, many students do not get the opportunity to learn with their teachers.
Africa has already been devastated by this deadly disease, and we cannot tolerate the further spread of it. Local governments have to take necessary actions since this epidemic has impacted African communities in many ways. Every day people are dying, and many more are left with painful experiences that HIV has left behind.
When the bread winner of the family gets infected, the whole family faces the socio-economic complexities. Tourism falls down since no tourists will come to visit a country devastated by AIDS. In the long run, governments will have huge debts, and at the same time they will have to take care of the sick and the orphans.
In order to reduce the number of AIDS-infected mothers, governments should provide necessary medical services and counseling for pregnant women and mothers p. Moreover, voluntary HIV testing for all women should be encouraged, and young girls should be educated in order to prevent unplanned pregnancies. Most women are afraid to get tested or to get help because of the fears of discrimination.
Governments should come forward and make sure that every woman receives necessary services to prevent MTCT. Local officials should take necessary steps to educate pregnant women and HIV infected mothers about the steps that they should take to prevent any possible MTCT. Replacement of feeding and caesareans should be made mandatory if the mother is suspected to have HIV. Services to increase the nutrition levels of HIV-infected mothers and their babies should be implemented.
Since drugs powders and syrups suitable for babies and young children have not yet reached African children, the government should take necessary actions to provide appropriate and low cost drugs for these children. On the other hand, children in many poor African countries die due to lack of treatment. Although antiretroviral drugs are available to patients in developed countries, patients in developing countries cannot afford those costly drugs.
The local governments also should find ways to provide low cost generic drugs to mothers and children in order to prevent MTCT in Africa. More affordable and advanced drugs are needed; yet gender equality, economic reforms, and development of infrastructure are more essential.
Due to gender discrimination in Africa, women cannot protect themselves from HIV. Social attitudes toward HIV-infected women should be changed through increasing the awareness and knowledge about HIV in local communities. Rapes of young girls are common in the most parts of Africa, and the criminals do not face any legal charges. Normally, African girls get less education than the boys do. This is partly due to gender discrimination, and this will result in lower socio-economic status among women.
This will cause women to depend on men for all their needs. When children get orphaned, the older children have to take care of their younger siblings. These children do not have the ability to fulfill healthcare and other essential needs of their younger siblings or even themselves. The governments should do something to find a home for these children and most importantly to provide medical treatment for them.
And many men in Africa do not use condoms because of the social beliefs prevalent in that society. So even though women do know their partners have HIV, they cannot do anything to prevent the transmission.
This means it is essential to educate both men and women about HIV transmission and prevention. Enrollment of children in schools is very important because school is the primary institution to give the message about AIDS to children. It is important to begin sex education when children are young. Children should be educated about how to prevent getting infected with HIV and how they can utilize the services available if they get infected.
As I explained earlier, HIV causes enrollment in schools to decrease. For example, they can begin a tutoring service targeting those children. Through education, myths about HIV infection and infected people could be eradicated.
Governments can also use mass media to educate people because now they are available even in the poorest regions of the world. HIV affects healthcare, social, and economic systems of countries. Further, HIV cannot be prevented solely through the efforts of African leaders; they need the help of the international community. HIV infection in Africa has become a humanitarian crisis, and we cannot end this in a couple of days.
Although we are equipped with very sophisticated technology, even in the 21st century, Africa without AIDS seems to be a dream. We should try to develop an AIDS vaccine because deadly diseases like small pox were eradicated through vaccination.
Libya Upholds Death Sentence in H.I.V. Case - The New York Times
The retrial, which began May 11, has heard only from prosecution witnesses so far. A verdict in the case is expected next month. The country has sought in recent years to abandon its anti-Western policies, give up its nuclear weapons program and pay compensation to past victims of its terrorist attacks.
As a result, the State Department removed Libya from its list of nations that sponsor terrorism. The medical workers were jailed in and later convicted of infecting children with H. More than 50 of those children have died. Two of the nurses reportedly confessed during earlier police interrogations, but later testified in court that they had done so under torture. All six defendants say they are innocent.
View all New York Times newsletters. In , the medical workers were sentenced to death by firing squad, but the Supreme Court overturned their convictions last December and sent the case back to a lower court.
All six defendants were in court on Tuesday, and they heard testimony from a young girl who was among those infected, the French news agency reported. The original trial and the retrial have pitted international specialists, including Luc Montagnier, a French researcher and a co-discoverer of H. The international experts say that the virus was already circulating in the hospital and that it was unintentionally passed on to the children because of lax sanitary practices.
The Libyans say that the virus was deliberately introduced to the hospital. The court has repeatedly refused defense requests for bail, citing insufficient guarantees. The Bulgarian authorities have said that if the nurses are again found guilty and sentenced to death, they will ask Libya to commute their sentences to life imprisonment and allow them to serve their sentences in Bulgaria. It is not clear who would intervene on behalf of the Palestinian doctor.
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